First published on 27th April 2007 , American Chronicle, and AfroArticles Extensively republished ever since, and recently mentioned in my article: https://www.academia.edu/43433032/Sudan_Ethiopia_Abyssinia_Egypt_Somalia_Yem …read more
Driven by their dreams, the Orientalists kept the unreal picture of Ethiopia that they had made in their dark libraries unchanged. The modern Sudanese, as they did not reflect anything from the aforementioned passage to the modern European Orientalists, were a useless element for the Western colonial academia. They kept them far from their researches and endeavours, and as they were Muslim, they kept them far from their dreams, As these dreams were not based only on Herodotus but on Late Antiquity and Middle Ages literature about Christened Ethiopia, the dream of a Christian country atthe southern confines of Mediterranean Egypt would not come true unless they devised a certain plan to ‘save’ Ethiopia from its own population that was supposedly lost in Islam. In the same way Western colonial powers viewed the secession of Egypt fromthe Ottoman Empire as the beginning of the end of the main political rival to Europe, they envisaged the re-Christianization of Sudan as the beginning of the end of Islam. In the same way no one can find French and British literature about their anti-Ottoman, late 18th, 19th, and early 20th century plans, one cannot identify a single document stipulating the Western European Dream about a Christian Sudan in the future. However, we do not need to find a text to solidly identifypolicies. Through various attempts, different policies, parallel developments, and systematic coordination, the colonial academia offers a convincing documentation for any political analyst, who would try to retrace hidden intentions and to identify secret dreams. Of course, these dreams are not secret for Western students of Orientalist seminars, simply they are covered by silence when African and Oriental students are present. They would immediately understand that the colonial academia dreams are pending nightmares for the indigenous populations of many countries stretching from the Nile’s estuary to the Horn of Africa.
Axes of historical sources about Ethiopia used by Orientalist colonial academia
The colonial Orientalist academia dream of ‘Ethiopia’ was made following readings that revolved around the following axes: 1. Herodotus’ narrations about a superb, exotic and most attractive country at the southern confines of Upper Egypt. The alliance between some anti-IranianAncient Greeks, some Egyptians, and Sudan’s Cushitic Ethiopians against the Achaemenid Iranian Emperor Cambyses was a wonderful dream for the colonial academia that wished to reproduce it in the 19th century – as a farce –mounting a scheme against the Sultan, and getting many rulers involved: Greeks premiers, Egyptian Khedives, and the pseudo-king Menelik of Abyssinia. In the same insane way Herodotus attempted to depict Cambyses as hyperbolic, out of proportion, and demented, 19th century French and British newspapers depicted the Sultan as paranoid. The villainous colonial gangsters of France and England ludicrously believed that they were at the
same wavelength with Herodotus. This was an outrage.2. The corpus of Ptolemaic Egypt’s historical records testifying to mostly goodneighborhood and alliance of the Ptolemaic rulers of Alexandria with their counterparts of Ethiopian Meroe. 3. The references of Manetho to the Ethiopian dynasty of Egypt. The Ptolemaic historiographer wrote in Greek and his enumeration of Ancient Egypt’s 30 dynasties was always an attractive reading for Europeans. The “Ethiopian dynasty” of Egypt consists in a series of Cushitic rulers of Ancient Sudan, who at an earlier stage than the Kings of Meroe, ruled from Napata (today’s Karima, 750 km south of the Egyptian – Sudanese border), and with the help of the Theban clergy of Ammon, they extended their authority far in the North, merging today’s Northern Sudan and Southern Egypt, only to be routed by expelled by Assarhaddon and Assurbanipal, the Assyrian Emperors who invaded Egypt three times (671, 669 and 666 BCE). For a brief period of just a year, Taharqa had merged all the area between today’s Khartoum and the Nile Delta…. 4. The references of Manetho to the Libyan dynasty of Egypt, which was put in place by the Assyrians first as tributary administrators of Egypt, which wasa province of the Assyrian Empire; this dynasty became later independent. The following historical points, which are directly related to the Libyan dynasty of Egypt, excited the romanticist imagination of the Orientalist colonial academia:– the alliance made between Psamtik (Psammetichus) I and some Greek states in the late 7th c. BCE, – the Ancient Egyptian need for, and cooperation with, the Greek and Carian mercenaries at Naucratis (7th – 6th c. BCE), and– the expedition to Napata (capital of the Ethiopian dynasty that had ruled Egypt) by Psammetichus II (595-589 BCE), whereby Carian and Greek mercenaries participated.Few people today understand that, back in the 19th century, the evil French and English colonial Orientalist academia, military and diplomats
viewed themselves as a historical ‘replay’ or as ‘return’ (or even as ‘genuine and rightful descendants’) of the Greek mercenaries, mythically and fallaciously identifying Psammetichus I, Nechao II, and Psammetichus II withMehmet Ali (the apostate Albanian soldier of the Sultan whom Napoleon initiated into the Satanic French Freemasonry and appointed as local ruler – Khedive of secessionist “Egypt” – nominally subservient to the Sultan but essentially enslaved to Colonial Freemasons) and his worthless descendants.Even fewer people today realize that the aforementioned historical diagram isin fact fully reflected in the criminal, colonial and racist involvement of the Anglo-Egyptian authorities in the Sudan during the 1880s. That shameful page of African History is characterized by the following parallels:
– Muhammad Ahmad al-Mahdi and his Sudanese patriotic liberators ‘represent’ Taharqa and the Napata (Karima)-based Ethiopian dynasty; – the Egyptian viceroy puppet of the English Tawfik Pasha (1879-1892) ‘represents’ Psamtik (Psammetichus) II; and– the English colonial gangsters (the homosexual Charles Gordon, Garnet Wolseley, and Herbert Kitchener) ‘represent’ the Ancient Greek and Carian mercenaries. Simply, the repetition proved to be a mere farce, because before 2600 years, the Ancient Greek and Carian mercenaries acted as per the orders of the then pharaoh, whereas before 140 years, the fake viceroy (Khedive) Tawfik Pasha governed the fake state of Modern “Egypt” as per the orders of his alien, European, colonial masters. In reality, all forms of Modern Egyptian state are a filthy and disgusting excrement dropped on the illustrious Ancient Egyptian past and heritage. 5. Historical sources of the Roman Times, involving Strabo and his narration of the Roman explorations of the Nile river sources whereby he had personally participated, Plutarch, Pausanias, Flavius Josephus, and Pliny to mention the most extensive ones. To these textual sources, one should add various epigraphic sources in Greek and Latin, bearing evidence to the good Roman – Ethiopian relations, which have been corroborated through commonarchitectural works (Talmis / Kalabsha temple) and joint control of border regions (Dodekaschoenus). 6. Late Antiquity and Early Medieval Times Greek and Roman literature. Heliodorus Aithiopika recreates a fabulous, idyllic atmosphere that fascinatedwide readerships in the past. The extensive commerce between Rome and India had contributed to some geographical confusions; the entire area south of Thebes of Egypt (Luqsor) until India was at times called either Ethiopia or India. This hyperbolic use of the two geographical terms involved lands like today’s Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Abyssinia, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Yemen, Arabia, and Oman. Cosmas Indicopleustes (‘navigator to India” as hisname means) in his ‘Christian Topography’ referred extensively to Adulis (near today’s Massawa in Eritrea) and other parts of this huge, real but hyperbolic ‘India’ or ‘Ethiopia’. 7. Last but not least, the relatively scarce mentions of the Old Testament and the New Testament to Kush and Ethiopia. For the Ancient Hebrew authors of the Biblical texts, and for the Septuagint (72 Jewish Elders who traveled to Alexandria invited by Ptolemy II) who translated the Hebrew text to Ancient Greek, the Hebrew term “Kush” had to be translated to Aithiopia in Greek, and this meant exclusively the area of today’s northern Sudan. The Ethiopian prince, a court official of the Ethiopian (i.e. Ancient Sudanese, Meroitic) queen(Kandake/Candace), who traveled to Palestine and believed in the stories of Jesus’ disciples, constituted, for these colonial Orientalist scholars, a full corroboration of the supposed Old Testament “prophecy” as per which ‘Ethiopia will stretch out her hand to the Lord”.
As these colonial Orientalist forgers used Christianity for the purposes of their Freemasonic schemes, they interpreted the aforementioned Biblical verse, by stupidly identifying the ‘Lord’ with … Jesus! This was a Satanic interpretation of the Bible and an evil adjustment of the Biblical text to the criminal colonial purposes of the Orientalist Freemasons. For the 19th centurycolonial academia, it was therefore ‘awkward’ how Sudan was not Christian! Then, they thought how not only Sudan but the entire hyperbolic Ethiopia (the region between Southern Egypt and the western coast of today’s India) would become Christian and Western ‘again’! When they later excavated monuments bearing evidence to the Christian Ethiopia, and to the formation of three Christian Sudanese states, namely Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, theycould not accept the reality; they could not take it in! Narrations about Frumentius’ trip to Adulis and Axum, Abyssinia’s Christianization, and Ezana’s attack and destruction of Meroe enriched the colonial Orientalists’ minds with new ideas and evil thoughts about potential ways by which Eastern Africa would become ‘again’ a huge Christian state from Alexandria to the Horn region, and all this under one name: Ethiopia. The colonial plan implementation will be the subject of a forthcoming article. Note:The picture represents a (saved during the Nubia Salvation UNESCO project) wall painting from (Christian Sudanese state) Nobatia’s cathedral at Faras (near today’s border between Sudan and Egypt); the subject reflects the Biblical narrations about Three Young Men in the Furnace