The Horn of Africa Center for Strategic and International Studies.

The Syrian War and the Strategic Logic of US Imperialism’s Drive to Dominate the Middle East Paul Antonopoulos drew cottle 2017, Center for Counter Hegemonic Studies

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, Andrew (2014) ‘
Maduro blames plunging oil prices on U.S. ‘war’ vs Russia, Venezuela
’,
Reuters, 30 December, online: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-oil/maduro-blames- plunging-oil-prices-on-u-s-war-vs-russia-venezuela-idUSKBN0K802020141230 Chivers, C.J., Schmitt, E. and Mazzetti M. (2013) In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons, The New York Times, [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/22/world/africa/in-a-turnabout-syria-rebels-get-libyan-weapons.html [accessed 6 October 2017].
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’,
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Mohseni, P. and Kalout, H. (2017) Iran’s Axis of Resistance Rises,
 Foreign Policy, [online] 24 January. Available at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/iran/2017-01-24/irans-axis-resistance-rises [accessed 6 October 2017]. Mulhem, S. (2017) A Look at Assad’s Syria Following Nearly Six Years of Crisis, Sputnik, [online] 24 February. Available at: https://sputniknews.com/analysis/201702241051006349-syria-assad-government-war/ [accessed 6 October 2017].
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Global Research, 18 November. Available at: https://www.globalresearch.ca/plans-for-redrawing-the-middle-east-the-project-for-a-new-middle-east/3882 [accessed 6 October 2017].  Nichols, M. (2017) U.S. priority on Syria no longer focused on ‘getting Assad out’: Haley, Reuters, [online] 30 March. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-usa-haley-idUSKBN1712QL [accessed 6 October 2017].
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Obama, B. (2014) Statement by the President on ISIL, The White House, [online] 10 September. Available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/10/statement- president-isil-1 [accessed 6 October 2017].
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amascus against interfering with its ‘aerial assets’ in Syrian airspace, [online]
19 March. Available at: https://www.rt.com/usa/242065-us-drone-downed-syria/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sahin, A. (2016) Once an enemy now an ally, Barzani pushes for independence despite Turkey, Daily Sabah, [online] 2 July. Available at: https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2017/07/03/once-an-enemy-now-an-ally-barzani-pushes-for-independence-despite-turkey [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sanger, D. E. and Schmitt, E. (2017) U.S. Cyberweapons, Used Against Iran and North Korea, Are a Disappointment Against ISIS, The New York Times, [online] 12 June. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/12/world/middleeast/isis-cyber.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sky News. (2017) US airstrikes in Syria ‘illegitimate and unlawful’, Russia says, [online] 19 May. Available at: http://news.sky.com/story/us-airstrikes-in-syria-completely-unacceptable-russia-says-10884020 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sputnik. (2017) ‘Long-Term Strategy’: Chinese Firms Eager to See Syria Part of Silk Road Project, [online] 24 July. Available at: https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201707241055829804-china-investment-syria-infrastructure/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sputnik. (2017) US Won’t Be Satisfied Until Seeing Stable Syria Without Assad
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Vine, D. (2015) Where in the World Is the U.S. Military?, Politico, [online] http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/06/us-military-bases-around-the-world-119321 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Walt, V. (2015) Big oil companies in the cross fire as Libyan violence erupts, Fortune, [online] 5 March. Available at: http://fortune.com/2015/03/05/libya-oil-companies-isis-fighting/ [accesse
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https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/australian-jets-participated-massacre-syrian-soldiers-deir-ezzor/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Baker, L. (2017) Netanyahu asks Trump to recognize Israeli sovereignty over Golan Heights, Reuters, [online] February 15. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-trump-israel-golan/netanyahu-asks-trump-to-recognize-israeli-sovereignty-over-golan-heights-idUSKBN15U2XX [accessed 6 October 2017]. Bolton, J. (2002) Beyond the Axis of Evil: Additional Threats from Weapons of Mass Destruction, The Heritage Fund, [online] 6 May. Available at: http://www.heritage.org/defense/report/beyond-the-axis-evil-additional-threats-weapons-mass-destruction-0 [accessed 6 October 2017].
Brooks, W. (2010) Syria’s Four Seas Policy and the New Middle East Quartet, Brooks Foreign Policy
Review, [online] 12 October. Available at: https://brooksreview.wordpress.com/2010/10/12/syrias-four-seas-policy-and-the-new-middle-east-quartet/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Bulos, N. (2016) Aleppo was Syria’s factory floor. Now it’s in ruins and business leaders wonder if it’s safe to rebuild, The Los Angeles Times, [online] 15 November. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-syria-aleppo-economy-20161113-story.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Bulos, N., Hennigan, W.J., and Bennet, B. (2016) In Syria, militias armed by the Pentagon fight those armed by the CIA, The Los Angeles Times, [online] 27 March. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/world/middleeast/la-fg-cia-pentagon-isis-20160327-story.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Bush, G. W. (2002) President Delivers State of the Union Address, The White House, [online] 29 January. Available at: https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Campbell, H. (2013) Global NATO and the Catastrophic Failure in Libya, New York: Monthly Review Press. Cawthorne
, Andrew (2014) ‘
Maduro blames plunging oil prices on U.S. ‘war’ vs Russia, Venezuela
’,
Reuters, 30 December, online: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-oil/maduro-blames- plunging-oil-prices-on-u-s-war-vs-russia-venezuela-idUSKBN0K802020141230 Chivers, C.J., Schmitt, E. and Mazzetti M. (2013) In Turnabout, Syria Rebels Get Libyan Weapons, The New York Times, [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/22/world/africa/in-a-turnabout-syria-rebels-get-libyan-weapons.html [accessed 6 October 2017].
Chulov, Martin (2017) ‘
Iraqi Kurdish leader to step down over fallout from independence poll
’,
The Guardian
, 30 October, online: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/oct/29/iraqi-kurdish-leader-to-step-down-independence-poll-masoud-barzani Clark, W. (2003) Winning Modern Wars, New York: Public Affairs. Council of Foreign Relations. (2015) The Time of the Kurds, [online] 3 June. Available at: https://www.cfr.org/interactives/time-kurds#!/?cid=soc-at-the_time_of_the_kurds-infoguide [accessed 6 October 2017]. Davis, G. (2016) And these are the ‘good guys’! Sickening video shows US-backed Syrian rebels taunting and then brutally beheading a young boy because he was a ‘spy’, The Daily Mail, [online] 19 July. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3697770/US-backed-Nour-al-Din-al-Zenki-behead-boy-accused-al-Quds-spy-Assad.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Demeri, M.Y. (2015) The Rise and Decline of the American Empire: Revealing the Truth, Bloomington: Archway. Fadel, L. (2016) US Coalition knew they were bombing the Syrian Army in Deir Ezzor, Al-Masdar  News, [online] 27 September. Available at: https://www.almasdarnews.com/article/us-coalition-knew-bombing-syrian-army-deir-ezzor/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Fishman, A. (2015) Israel is up to its neck in Syria, Ynet News, [online] 1 May. Available at: https://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4652757,00.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Flounders, S. (2011) Syria and US Imperialism, Global Research, [online] 6 May. Available at: https://www.globalresearch.ca/syria-and-us-imperialism/24659 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Genie Oil Gas. (2017) Strategic Advisory Board. Available at: https://genieoilgas.com/about-us/strategic-advisory-board/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Genugten, Saskia Van. (2016) Libya in Western Foreign Policies, 1911
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2011, London: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Global Research News. (2017) Libya: Ten Things About Gaddafi They Don’t Want You to Know.
[online] 16 May. Available at: https://www.globalresearch.ca/libya-ten-things-about-gaddafi-they-dont-want-you-to-know/5414289 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Hendawi, H. (2013) Morsi seen to endorse holy war on Syria, The Times of Israel, [online] 17 June. Available at: https://www.timesofisrael.com/morsi-seen-to-endorse-holy-war-on-syria/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Hof, F.C. (2014) Why is Syria important?, The Atlantic Council, [online] 31 March. Available at: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/new-atlanticist/why-syria-is-important [accessed 6 October 2017]. House of Commons
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 Foreign Affairs Committee (2015) UK Government policy on the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Eight Report of Session 2014-15, [online] 13 January. Available at: http://www.eisourcebook.org/cms/January%202016/UK%20Government%20policy%20on%20the%20Kurdistan%20region%20of%20Iraq%202015.pdf [accessed 6 October 2017]. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1981) Golan Heights Law. Available at: http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/guide/pages/golan%20heights%20law.aspx [accessed 6 October 2017]. Issa, P. and Karam, Z. (2017) Israel stepping up airstrikes in Syria in proxy war with Iran, Chicago Tribune, [online] 27 April. Available at: http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/nationworld/ct-israel-syria-missile-attack-20170427-story.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Keynoush, B. (2016) Saudi Arabia and Iran: Friends or Foes?, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Kilroy, R. J. J. (2008) Wiley Pathways Threats to Homeland Security: An All-Hazards Perspective, Lexington: Virginia Military Institute. Lake, E. (2016) Syria’s ‘Army of Islam’ Says It Wants No War With Israel, Bloomberg, [online] 29 September. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2016-09-29/syria-s-army-of-islam-says-it-wants-no-war-with-israel [accessed 6 October 2017]. Lake, E. (2015) Iran Spends Billions to Prop Up Assad, Bloomberg, [online] 9 June. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2015-06-09/iran-spends-billions-to-prop-up-assad [accessed 6 October 2017]. Layne, C. (2012) The End of Pax Americana: How Western Decline Became Inevitable, The Atlantic, [online] 26 April. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/04/the-end-of-pax-americana-how-western-decline-became-inevitable/256388/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Lazaroff, T. (2014) Netanyahu: I support Kurdish independence, The Jerusalem Post, [online] 30 June. Available at: http://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/Netanyahu-I-support-Kurdish-independence-360958 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Lo, B. (2008) Axis of Convenience: Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics, London: Chatham House. Lopez, G. and Nelson, L. (2017) President Trump speaks after ordering attack on Syria, Vox, [online] 6 April. Available at: https://www.vox.com/world/2017/4/6/15214942/trump-syria-bombing-attack [accessed 6 October 2017].
Mohseni, P. and Kalout, H. (2017) Iran’s Axis of Resistance Rises,
 Foreign Policy, [online] 24 January. Available at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/iran/2017-01-24/irans-axis-resistance-rises [accessed 6 October 2017]. Mulhem, S. (2017) A Look at Assad’s Syria Following Nearly Six Years of Crisis, Sputnik, [online] 24 February. Available at: https://sputniknews.com/analysis/201702241051006349-syria-assad-government-war/ [accessed 6 October 2017].
 Natali, D. (2015) The Islamic State’s Baathist roots, Al
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 Nazemroaya, M. D. (2006) Plans for Redrawing the Middle East: The Project for a “New Middle East”,
Global Research, 18 November. Available at: https://www.globalresearch.ca/plans-for-redrawing-the-middle-east-the-project-for-a-new-middle-east/3882 [accessed 6 October 2017].  Nichols, M. (2017) U.S. priority on Syria no longer focused on ‘getting Assad out’: Haley, Reuters, [online] 30 March. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-usa-haley-idUSKBN1712QL [accessed 6 October 2017].
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Obama, B. (2014) Statement by the President on ISIL, The White House, [online] 10 September. Available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/10/statement- president-isil-1 [accessed 6 October 2017].
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amascus against interfering with its ‘aerial assets’ in Syrian airspace, [online]
19 March. Available at: https://www.rt.com/usa/242065-us-drone-downed-syria/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sahin, A. (2016) Once an enemy now an ally, Barzani pushes for independence despite Turkey, Daily Sabah, [online] 2 July. Available at: https://www.dailysabah.com/feature/2017/07/03/once-an-enemy-now-an-ally-barzani-pushes-for-independence-despite-turkey [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sanger, D. E. and Schmitt, E. (2017) U.S. Cyberweapons, Used Against Iran and North Korea, Are a Disappointment Against ISIS, The New York Times, [online] 12 June. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/12/world/middleeast/isis-cyber.html [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sky News. (2017) US airstrikes in Syria ‘illegitimate and unlawful’, Russia says, [online] 19 May. Available at: http://news.sky.com/story/us-airstrikes-in-syria-completely-unacceptable-russia-says-10884020 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sputnik. (2017) ‘Long-Term Strategy’: Chinese Firms Eager to See Syria Part of Silk Road Project, [online] 24 July. Available at: https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201707241055829804-china-investment-syria-infrastructure/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Sputnik. (2017) US Won’t Be Satisfied Until Seeing Stable Syria Without Assad
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 Envoy, [online] 15 September. Available at: https://sputniknews.com/us/201709151057437267-haley-assad-must-go-syria/ [accessed 6 October 2017]. Stewart, P. (2017) U.S. to arm Syrian Kurds fighting Islamic State, despite Turkey’s ire, Reuters, [online] 9 May. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-usa-kurds/u-s-to-arm-syrian-kurds-fighting-islamic-state-despite-turkeys-ire-idUSKBN18525V [accessed 6 October 2017]. The Jerusalem Post. (2015) Report: Israel treating al-Qaida fighters wounded in Syria Civil War, [online] 13 May. Available at: http://www.jpost.com/Middle-East/Report-Israel-treating-al-Qaida-fighters-wounded-in-Syria-civil-war-393862 [accessed 6 October 2017]. The Middle East Eye. (2014) Syria’s Assad depending on Iran financial aid, [online] 30 December. Available at: http://www.middleeasteye.net/news/syrias-assad-depending-iran-financial-aid-392275455 [accessed 6 October 2017]. UN News Centre. (2004) Lessons of Iraq war underscore importance of UN Charter
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 Annan, [online] 16 September. Available at: http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=11953#.WdfSO2hSzIU [accessed 6 October 2017].
CCHS RP 4/17 The Syrian War and Imperial Logic
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Vine, D. (2015) Where in the World Is the U.S. Military?, Politico, [online] http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/06/us-military-bases-around-the-world-119321 [accessed 6 October 2017]. Walt, V. (2015) Big oil companies in the cross fire as Libyan violence erupts, Fortune, [online] 5 March. Available at: http://fortune.com/2015/03/05/libya-oil-companies-isis-fighting/ [accesse
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